Black beans were first domesticated thousands of years ago in Peru, and quickly became a staple of the South American diet. They first came to Europe when explorers came home with them in the 1500s.
They are very high in fiber, folate, protein, and antioxidants, along with numerous other vitamins and minerals. Black beans make a complete protein when paired with brown rice, which is often why they are so commonly included in a vegetarian diet.
Digestive Tract Benefits
The high quantity of both protein and fiber in black beans help to move food through the stomach to the large intestine at a healthier pace. This keeps any one part of the digestive tract from having to work too hard and supports the ideal balance of chemicals and populations of microorganisms required for a healthy digestive system.
Blood Sugar Regulation
The steady movement of protein and fiber through the digestive system allows for a measured breakdown of food into its component parts. This even breakdown of food helps to curtail extremes regarding simple sugar uptake from the digestive tract. An excess of simple sugar uptake all at once can produce an unwanted blood sugar spike. A lack of simple sugar uptake may produce a rapid blood sugar drop. Either extreme can upset blood sugar balance. The quantity of fiber and protein in black beans helps avoid both extremes.
Black beans are abundant in soluble fiber, which is specifically the type of fiber that has been found very helpful in lowering blood cholesterol levels. Lowered risks of coronary heart disease and heart attack have both been associated with increased consumption of soluble fiber, particularly from legumes.
Black beans also contain a wide variety of both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which combat cardiovascular disease. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory protection is particularly important for the cardiovascular system. When blood vessels are exposed to excessive oxidative stress or inflammation, risk for disease development is considerably higher. The prevention of oxidative stress and inflammation lowers risk of acquiring most cardiovascular diseases.
Black beans are also high in folate and magnesium, both nutrients highly associated with preservation of cardiovascular health, and the antioxidant minerals zinc and manganese.
Nervous System Health
Folate, or vitamin B6, is particularly abundant in black beans. The nervous system relies on folate to produce the amino acids it needs to function. For pregnant women a deficiency in folate can cause the improper development of the fetus's brain and spinal cord. The high iron content of black beans is also particularly beneficial to pregnant women.
Rich in Molybdenum
Black beans are an extremely rich source of the trace mineral molybdenum. Molybdenum serves the useful purpose of breaking down and detoxifying sulfites found in foods like salads and wines. Many people are sensitive to sulfites, and may they cause rapid heartbeat, headache or disorientation when consumed. Studies also suggest that molybdenum deficiencies can result in impotence in older men.